How to Spot Deep Vein Thrombosis
Learn the risks and warning signs
Many things can cause pain or swelling in your leg. In fact, deep vein thrombosis can have the same symptoms as many other health problems. While it can happen to anyone, it's more common among people over the age of 60.
You may be able to avoid serious problems by taking steps to reduce your chances of a blood clot forming in your veins.
When a clot forms in a vein, deep in the body, it’s called deep vein thrombosis, or DVT. It typically occurs in the lower leg or thigh but can develop in your arm or another part of the body. If that clot breaks loose and travels to the lung, it’s called a pulmonary embolus, or PE. This can cut off the flow of blood in the lungs. A blood clot in the lungs is a medical emergency and may cause death.
How DVT develops
Blood clots develop when blood thickens and clumps together. The deep veins of the legs carry blood from the legs to the heart. When leg muscles contract and relax, blood is squeezed through the veins back to the heart. One-way valves inside the veins help keep the blood moving in the right direction. When blood moves too slowly or not at all, it can pool in the veins. This makes a clot more likely to form.
Blood clots are also more likely to form when there is inflammation or trauma to the vessel. Some people develop blood clots at a higher rate than others. This tendency is called a hypercoagulable state and may be inherited genetically. Other times it can result from medical conditions, like cancer.
Anyone can develop a blood clot. Risk can occur if you've been traveling for a long time, been in the hospital and unable to move, or were in an accident. If you’ve experienced the following, you may also be at higher risk:
Personal or family history of a blood-clotting disorder
Having blood clots in the past
Cancer and certain cancer treatments
However, anyone can develop a blood clot, even without any risk factors. Therefore, it's important to know the signs and symptoms.
Know the signs
Most people with a deep vein thrombosis will develop pain and swelling in their leg. The leg may be swollen, red, or tender to the touch. Occasionally a rope-like cord can be felt under the skin. Your leg may ache when you walk and feel better if it's elevated.
If a deep vein thrombosis dislodges from the vein and becomes a pulmonary embolus, it can cause noticeable symptoms. You may feel lightheaded or faint, have shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, or an elevated heart rate. A pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition and requires immediate treatment. If you're having trouble breathing or chest pain, call 911 right away.
All blood clots should be treated to prevent long term complications, such as persistent pain and swelling in the leg, and to reduce the risk for PE.
Deep vein thrombosis is easy to diagnose. Typically, a doctor will order an ultrasound of your leg to look for blood clots. The ultrasound uses sound waves to look inside your body. It's painless and takes less than 15 minutes to complete. If you have a My HealtheVet Premium Account, you can view, download, and share your ultrasound images in the VA Medical Images and Reports section of your Blue Button Report.
If you have signs or symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism, additional testing may be required.
Treatment for DVT
Deep vein thrombosis is treated using blood thinners. There are many types of blood thinners. Your doctor will choose the blood thinner that is best for you. Most patients only need to take blood thinners for a short amount of time, such as a few months. However, if your doctor determines you're at high risk of developing another clot, they may recommend a longer treatment plan.
Contact your doctor using Secure Messaging (sign in required) to discuss hospital and at-home medication treatments. Your doctor may run some blood tests to check for clotting. My HealtheVet’s self-entered Vitals + Readings section makes it easy to track how you're doing.
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